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The rapid evolution of technology and ever increasing information brought to light in the area of forensic science continually bring new techniques and knowledge to the field. The phrase “Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose” translated as “The more things change, the more they stay the same” (quoted from Alphonse KARR’s Les Guêpes 1849) gives an insight to the approaches that are considered by many to be best practices in the field. While computer technology is finding new applications in capturing, comparing & simulating evidence from crime scenes, it is the nature of the “sketch” and the human connection that has brought methodology in composite and facial reconstruction full circle back to the hand rendered artist’s image. Here the final image uses all the cues that science can provide with the open endedness that allows for interpretation, an invitation for the imagination to fill in the blanks. The following resources and links have provided valuable information and insight for me. Many thanks to the people who have helped me.

Guidelines& Standards for Forensic Art distributed by International Association for Identification.

Eyewitness Evidence Published by the US Justice Department.

I have found the following books invaluable to the study, practice and
understanding of information for forensic art.

Forensic Art and Illustration Karen Taylor, 1998, US Printing Office

Forensic Facial Reconstruction, Caroline Wilkinson 2004 , Cambridge University Press

These links may be of use to those interested in the study and practice of forensic art:

Gil Zamora's online lessons in forensic art. http://www.sketch-artist.com/index.htm

Karen T Taylor's Facial Images site lists her workshops and also information for Betty Pat Gatliff http://www.karenttaylor.com/

Forensic Art Talk Network of those interested in Forensic Art

International Association for Identification http://www.theiai.org/

This site provides updated information on forensic anthropology. http://craniofacialidentification.com/

The following links may be of help in finding or identifying missing persons:

This site allows agencies and individules fo search for missing persons http://www.namus.gov/

National Clearinghouse for Missing and Exploited Children www.NCMEC.org




Research in the area of psychology also has considerable impact and implications to the practice of Forensic Art especially in the area of composite art. The following suggested books and articles may be interesting:


Eyewitness Evidence, A Guide for Law Enforcement, 1999, US Justice Department (cited above)

Eyewitness Testimony, Elizabeth F. Loftus, 1996. Harvard University Press

Journal Articles

Charman & Wells, 2006, Can Eyewitnesses Correct for External Influences on their Lineup Identifications? Iowa State University, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied Vol. 14 No 1 pg 5-20

Cutler, B.L., and S.D. Penrod, 1995, Mistaken Identification: The Eyewitness, Psychology, and the Law, New York: Cambridge University Press,.

Fisher-Hertz,L., 2003, Artists Rely on Witness Recall, Poughkeepsie Journal February 10, 2003

Fisher, R.P., and M.L. McCauley, 1995, “Information Retrieval: Interviewing Witnesses.” In Psychology and Policing, ed. N. Brewer and C. Wilson. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum,: 81–99.

Fisher, R.P., R.E. Geiselman, and D.S. Raymond, 1987 “Critical Analysis of Police Interview Techniques.” Journal of Police Science and Administration 15 pg.177–185.

Geiselman, R.E., and R.P. Fisher. “Ten Years of Cognitive Interviewing.” In Intersections in Basic and Applied Memory Research, edited by. D. Payne 1992: http://cogprints.org/640/0/memon.ci_review.html

L. Hahill 1995 Journal of the International Association for Identification Journal, July 1995.
M. Connell, 200, The Use of Eyewitness Research in the Courts

Articles on the Web:

Texas Criminal Defense Lawyers Project, Longview, Texas 2001, El Paso, Texas 2002 accessed at : http://www.maryconnell.com/eyewitness.htm

Murray & Wells, Journal of Applied Social Psychology 1982 pg 42-53 http://www.walesfoundation.org/help.htm

Semmler, Brewer & Wells, 2004, Effects of Post identification Feedback on Eyewitness Identification and non-Identification Confidence., Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 89 No 2 pg 334-346 Retrieved from: http://www.all-about-forensic-psychology.com/eyewitness-memory.html

Wells, G. L., & Loftus, E. F. (2003). Eyewitness memory for people and events, (Ch. 9, pp. 149-160). As noted in Odinot, G. 2006 Repeated recall, retention interval and the accuracy-confidence relation in eyewitness memory Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 973-985, http://dx. Doi.org/10.1002/acp.1263

Wells Olson,& Charman, 2002, The Confidence of Eyewitnesses in their Identifications from Lineups, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 2 No 5 pg151-154

Wells Olson and Charman, 2003, Distorted Retrospective Eyewitness Reports as functions of Feedback and Delay, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied Vol. 9 No 1 Pg 42-52

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